TENS PEMF therapy in the management of ADD and ADHD
The following studies represent the clinical evidence for the use of TENS PEMF therapy in the management of ADD and ADHD. Please note these studies were not done on the Rife PEMF device, but do represent outputs available on our devices.
For more information on ADHD and ADD, please read our article: TENS therapy for ADHD – ADHD Alternatives to medication
|Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition, behavior, and the rest-activity rhythm in children with ADHD||Twenty-two children diagnosed with ADHD-CT received TENS treatment during 6 weeks, 2 times 30 min a day. Neuropsychological tests were administered to assess cognition, parent/teacher behavioral rating scales were used to measure behavior, and actigraphy was used to assess the rest-activity rhythm. TENS appeared to have a moderate beneficial influence on cognitive functions that load particularly on executive function. There was also improvement in behavior as measured by parent/teacher behavioral rating scales. Moreover, motor restlessness during sleep and motor activity during the day decreased by TENS. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of TENS in children with ADHD are modest but encouraging and warrant further research.|
|Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescents and young adults: a pilot study||In 2012, Weaver et al. performed a pilot trial of 9 adolescents and young adults, age 15-20, using 10 Hz rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex 97. Subjects underwent 10 sessions over two weeks and each subject was crossed-over to receive sham. The objective of the study was to assess safety and the conclusion was that this was that rTMS was safe in this cohort, but the study was underpowered to show efficacy. Although the authors reported an improvement in core ADHD symptoms in the treatment group the effect did not differ significantly from the sham condition.||10Hz|
|Positive effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on attention in ADHD Subjects: a randomized controlled pilot study.||In 2010, Bloch et al. performed a double blind, randomized, sham controlled crossover pilot study with positive effects in 13 patients|
|Effectiveness of the repetitive Transcranical Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) of 1 Hz for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).||The purpose of our study is to verify the therapeutic effectiveness of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (low frequency (1Hz, 1200 stim/die for five days)), applied on the impending scalp additional motor area, in a subject affected by ADHD. Results show a significant improvement that lasted for at least 4 weeks. Placebo control did not show any improvement.||1Hz|
|Saftey of TMS||TMS has been used in over 800 normal children and over 300 neurologically abnormal children, with a good tolerability and safety profile 105,106. No change in auditory function has been reported in the pediatric population to date 105. Single- or paired-pulse TMS has not been shown to cause seizures in children, including those with epilepsy or with conditions like cerebral palsy that are associated with increased risk of seizures 101,107-113. One case of rTMS-induced seizure was reported in an adolescent patient being treated for depression 114, though other risk factors for seizure were also present, including alcohol use the night before the induced seizure 95. In 2009, a consensus conference issued recommendations for the safe use TMS in the pediatric population. They concluded that single-pulse and paired-pulse TMS was safe for children two years and older. In the absence of an appreciable volume of data on the potential for adverse effects with rTMS, they recommended that children should not be used as subjects for rTMS without compelling clinical reasons, such as the treatment of particular psychiatric conditions|
|Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Pediatric ADHD: A Review||An ongoing study is investigating the use of tDCS in adult patients with ADHD, which uses anodal tDCS stimulation over the left dorsolateral preftonal cortex at 1 mA127. The aim of this parallel, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial is to study the modulation of inhibitory control in this population. While the results of tDCS in ADHD are not yet available there is a burgeoning literature suggesting that tDCS may be used to improve cognitive performance. These studies have shown that tDCS can improve behavioural inhibition, memory, and attention in healthy subjects 128,129, and these findings extend to clinical populations 127,130. There is reason to be optimistic that similar stimulation paradigms may have a beneficial effect for ADHD patients, though it will be critical that future studies be sufficiently powered and include a sham-controlled experimental design.|
|Transcranial direct current stimulation improves clinical symptoms in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder||Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex has repeatedly been shown to improve working memory. As patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by both underactivation of the prefrontal cortex and deficits in working memory that correlate with clinical symptoms, it is hypothesized that the modulation of prefrontal activity with tDCS in patients with ADHD increases performance in working memory and reduces symptoms of ADHD. To test this hypothesis, fifteen adolescents with ADHD (12-16 years old, three girls and 12 boys) were treated according to the randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled, crossover design with either 1 mA anodal tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or with the sham protocol 5 days each with a 2 weeks pause between these conditions. Anodal tDCS caused a significant reduction in clinical symptoms of inattention and impulsivity in adolescents with ADHD compared to sham stimulation. The clinical effects were supported by a significant reduction in inattention and hyperactivity in a standardized working memory test (QbTest). The described effects were more pronounced 7 days after the end of stimulation, a fact which emphasizes the long-lasting clinical and neuropsychological changes after tDCS. This study provides the first evidence that tDCS may reduce symptoms of ADHD and improve neuropsychological functioning in adolescents and points on the potential of tDCS as a form of treatment for ADHD.||1 mA|
|Positive effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - A pilot randomized controlled study.||We performed a double-blind, sham-controlled randomized clinical trial in 17 patients with ADHD. The set up for tDCS was the following: 2mA/20min/day for 5 days with the anode over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathode over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. ADHD symptoms were measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and impairment with the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) in four different time points after stimulation. Participants achieved significant lower ASRS inattention and SDS scores after active tDCS in comparison with sham stimulation group. In addition, we detected a trend for a lower ASRS total score in the active tDCS group. Follow up data analysis revealed a positive interaction between time and treatment in both ASRS inattention, SDS and ASRS total scores. Short-term application of tDCS in adult patients with ADHD improved their symptoms, and this improvement persisted after the end of the stimulation. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed.||2mA/20min/day|
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